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In Windows, user account needs certain rights which are assigned to customizable groups………General categories of user rights and their string constant are given below………..


To grant advanced user rights on Windows you must be logged on as a local Administrator.


Windows NT

  1. Click Start and select Programs –> Administrative Tools (Common) –> User Manager for Domains.
  2. In the User Manager window, select Policies –> User Rights from the menu bar.
  3. In the User Rights Policy window, select the Show Advanced User Rights check box then in the Right drop down box, select the user right you want to grant. Click Add.
  4. In the Add Users and Groups window select the user or the group you want to grant the right to and click OK.
  5. In the User Rights Policy window, select the user or the group you have added from the Grant To list box and click OK.

Windows 2000, Windows XP, and Windows Server 2003













–  Click Start and select Settings –> Control Panel –> Administrative Tools.









On Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 computers, for some Windows Themes, this will be: Settings –> Control Panel –> Performance and Maintenance –> Administrative Tools.


Select Local Security Policy.









In the left window pane, expand the Local Policies object, then select User Rights Assignment.

  1. In the right window pane, select the user right that you want to assign.
  2. From the menu, select Action –> Security…
  3. Click Add, then select a user or group to assign the right to, and click Add.
  4. Click OK.









– Computer Configuration\Windows Settings\Security Settings\Local Policies\User Rights Assignment

Wintel user rights fall into two general categories:

Logon Rights and Privileges.

  • Logon rights control who is authorized to log on to a computer and how they can log on.
  • Privileges control access to system-wide resources on a computer and can override the permissions that are set on particular objects.

Logon Rights

Logon rights control how security principals are allowed access to the computer—whether from the keyboard or through a network connection, or whether as a service or as a batch job.

For each logon method, there exists a pair of logon rights – one to allow logging on to the computer and another to deny logging on to the computer. Use a deny logon right as you would use a deny permission – to exclude a subset of a group that has been assigned an allow logon right.

For example, suppose that Alice wants all users except the members of the domain Marketing group to be able to log on locally at her computer’s keyboard. With this in mind, Alice creates a local group, which she names “LocalLogonDenied.” Then she configures her computer as follows:

  1. She assigns the log on locally user right to the Users group.
  2. She assigns the deny local logon user right to the LocalLogonDenied group.
  3. She makes the Marketing group a member of the LocalLogonDenied group.

Deny rights take precedence over allow rights, so members of the Marketing group are denied the right to log on locally even though they are also members of the Users group, which is allowed to log on locally.

Warning : The rule to keep in mind is: “Allow a set, and then deny a subset.” Reversing the order can be disastrous. For example, Alice might want to allow no one but herself to log on locally. If she allowed herself the right to log on locally and denied the Users group the right to log on locally, she would be unpleasantly surprised to find that she had locked herself out of the computer. Alice, after all, is a member of the Users group, so the deny right she assigned to the Users group would take precedence over the allow right she assigned to herself.

Logon rights are described in Table 1. The display names for logon rights are followed by the string constant (in parentheses). Many command-line tools refer to rights by string constant rather than by display name. The default settings are taken from the Windows XP Professional Local Computer policy.


Table 1:            Logon Rights


Right Description
Access this computer from the network


Allows a user to connect to the computer from the network.

Default setting: Administrators, Power Users, Users, Everyone, and Backup Operators.

Allow logon through Terminal Services


Allows a user to log on to the computer using a Remote Desktop connection.

Default setting: Administrators and Remote Desktop Users.

Log on as a batch job


Allows a user to log on using a batch-queue facility such as the Task Scheduler service.

Default setting: Administrator, System, and Support_xxxxxxxx.

When an administrator uses the Add Scheduled Task Wizard to schedule a task to run under a particular user name and password, that user is automatically assigned the “Log on as a batch job” right. When the scheduled time arrives, the Task Scheduler service logs the user on as a batch job rather than as an interactive user, and the task runs in the user’s security context. The Support_xxxxxxxx account is the logon account for Remote Assistance.

Log on locally


Allows a user to start an interactive session on the computer.

Default setting: Administrators, Power Users, Users, Guest, and Backup Operators.

Users who do not have this right can start a remote interactive session on the computer if they have the “Allow logon through Terminal Services” right.

Log on as a service


Allows a security principal to log on as a service. Services can be configured to run under the Local System, Local Service, or Network Service accounts, which have a built-in right to log on as a service. Any service that runs under a separate user account must be assigned the right.

Default setting: Network Service.

Deny access to this computer from the network


Prohibits a user from connecting to the computer from the network.

Default setting: The Support_xxxxxxxx account used by Remote Assistance is denied this right.

Deny logon locally


Prohibits a user from logging on directly at the keyboard.

Default setting: Guest.

Deny logon as a batch job


Prohibits a user from logging on using a batch-queue facility.

Default setting: Not assigned.

Deny logon as a service


Prohibits a user from logging on as a service.

Default setting: Not assigned.

Deny logon through Terminal Services


Prohibits a user from logging on to the computer using a Remote Desktop connection.

Default setting: Not assigned.


To ease the task of security administration, assign privileges primarily to groups rather than to individual user accounts. When you assign privileges to a group, the privileges are assigned automatically to each user who is added to the group. This is easier than assigning privileges to individual user accounts as each account is created.

The privileges that can be assigned are listed and described in Table 2. The display name for each privilege is followed by the corresponding string constant (in parentheses). Many command-line tools refer to privileges by string constant rather than by display name. The default settings are taken from the Windows XP Professional Local Computer policy.


Table 2:            Privileges


Privilege Description
Act as part of the operating system


Allows a process to assume the identity of any user and thus gain access to the resources that the user is authorized to access. Typically, only low-level authentication services require this privilege.

Default setting: Not assigned.

Note that potential access is not limited to what is associated with the user by default; the calling process might request that arbitrary additional privileges be added to the access token. The calling process might also build an access token that does not provide a primary identity for tracking events in the audit log.

When a service requires this privilege, configure the service to log on using the Local System account, which has the privilege inherently. Do not create a separate account and assign the privilege to it.

Add workstations to domain


Allows the user to add a computer to a specific domain. For the privilege to take effect, it must be assigned to the user as part of the Default Domain Controllers Policy for the domain. A user who has this privilege can add up to 10 workstations to the domain.

Default setting: Not assigned.

Users can also join a computer to a domain if they have Create Computer Objects permission for an organizational unit or for the Computers container in Active Directory. Users who have this permission can add an unlimited number of computers to the domain regardless of whether they have been assigned the “Add workstations to a domain” privilege.

Adjust memory quotas for a process


Allows a process that has access to a second process to increase the processor quota assigned to the second process. This privilege is useful for system tuning, but it can be abused. In the wrong hands, it could be used to launch a denial-of-service attack.

Default setting: Administrators, Local Service, and Network Service.

Back up files and directories


Allows the user to circumvent file and directory permissions to back up the system. The privilege is selected only when an application attempts access using the NTFS backup application programming interface (API). Otherwise, normal file and directory permissions apply.

Default setting: Administrators and Backup Operators.

See also “Restore files and directories” in this table.

Bypass traverse checking


Allows the user to pass through folders to which the user otherwise has no access while navigating an object path in the NTFS file system or in the registry. This privilege does not allow the user to list the contents of a folder; it allows the user only to traverse its directories.

Default setting: Administrators, Backup Operators, Power Users, Users, and Everyone.

Change the system time


Allows the user to adjust the time on the computer’s internal clock. This privilege is not required to change the time zone or other display characteristics of the system time.

Default setting: Administrators and Power Users.

Create a token object


Allows a process to create an access token by calling NtCreateToken () or other token-creating APIs.

Default setting: Not assigned.

When a process requires this privilege, use the Local System (or System) account, which has the privilege inherently. Do not create a separate user account and assign the privilege to it.

Create a pagefile


Allows the user to create and change the size of a pagefile. This is done by specifying a paging file size for a particular drive in the Performance Options box on the Advanced tab of System Properties.

Default setting: Administrators.

Create global objects


Allows the user to create global objects during Terminal Services sessions. Users can still create session-specific objects without being assigned this user right.

Default setting: Administrators, Interactive, Service

Debug programs


Allows the user to attach a debugger to any process. This privilege provides access to sensitive and critical operating system components.

Default setting: Administrators.

Enable computer and user
accounts to be trusted for


Allows the user to change the Trusted for Delegation setting on a user or computer object in Active Directory. The user or computer that is granted this privilege must also have write access to the account control flags on the object.

Default setting: Not assigned to anyone on member servers and workstations because it has no meaning in those contexts.

Delegation of authentication is a capability that is used by multitier client/server applications. It allows a front-end service to use the credentials of a client in authenticating to a back-end service. For this to be possible, both client and server must be running under accounts that are trusted for delegation.

Misuse of this privilege or the Trusted for Delegation settings can make the network vulnerable to sophisticated attacks that use Trojan horse programs, which impersonate incoming clients and use their credentials to gain access to network resources.

Force shutdown from a remote system


Allows a user to shut down a computer from a remote location on the network.

Default setting: Administrators.

See also “Shut down the system” in this table.

Generate security audits


Allows a process to generate audit records in the security log. The security log can be used to trace unauthorized system access.

Default setting: Local Service and Network Service. Local System (or System) has the privilege inherently.

See also “Manage auditing and security log” in this table.

Impersonate a client after authentication


Allows programs running on behalf of a user to impersonate a client. Requiring this privilege prevents an unauthorized user from convincing a client to connect to a service they have created and impersonating that client, which can elevate the unauthorized user’s permissions to administrative or system levels. Note that assigning this privilege can be a security risk, so only assign it to trusted users.

Default setting: Administrators, Service

Increase scheduling priority


Allows a user to increase the base priority class of a process. (Increasing relative priority within a priority class is not a privileged operation.) This privilege is not required by administrative tools supplied with the operating system but might be required by software development tools.

Default setting: Administrators.

Load and unload device drivers


Allows a user to install and remove drivers for Plug and Play devices. This privilege is not required if a signed driver for the new hardware already exists in the file on the computer.

Default setting: Administrators.

Do not assign this privilege to any user or group other than Administrators. Device drivers run as trusted (highly privileged) code. A user who has “Load and unload device drivers” privilege could unintentionally install malicious code masquerading as a device driver. It is assumed that administrators will exercise greater care and install only drivers with verified digital signatures.

You must have this privilege and also be a member of either Administrators or Power Users to install a new driver for a local printer or manage a local printer by setting defaults for options such as duplex printing. The requirement to have both the privilege and membership in Administrators or Power Users is new to Windows XP Professional.

Lock pages in memory


Allows a process to keep data in physical memory, which prevents the system from paging the data to virtual memory on disk. Assigning this privilege can result in significant degradation of system performance.

Default setting: Not assigned. Local System (or System) has the privilege inherently.

Manage auditing and security log


Allows a user to specify object access auditing options for individual resources such as files, Active Directory objects, and registry keys. Object access auditing is not performed unless you enable it using Audit Policy (under Security Settings, Local Policies). A user who has this privilege can also view and clear the security log from Event Viewer.

Default setting: Administrators.

Modify firmware environment values


Allows modification of system environment variables either by a process through an API or by a user through System Properties.

Default setting: Administrators.

Perform volume maintenance tasks


Allows a non-administrative or remote user to manage volumes or disks. The operating system checks for the privilege in a user’s access token when a process running in the user’s security context calls SetFileValidData().

Default setting: Administrators.

Profile single process


Allows a user to sample the performance of an application process.

Default setting: Administrators and Power Users.

Ordinarily, you do not need this privilege to use the Performance snap-in. However, you do need the privilege if System Monitor is configured to collect data by using Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI).

Profile system performance


Allows a user to sample the performance of system processes. This privilege is required by the Performance snap-in only if it is configured to collect data by using Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI).

Default setting: Administrators.

Ordinarily, you do not need this privilege to use the Performance snap-in. However, you do need the privilege if System Monitor is configured to collect data by using Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI).

Remove computer from docking station


Allows the user of a portable computer to undock the computer by clicking Eject PC on the Start menu.

Default setting: Administrators, Power Users, and Users.

Replace a process-level token


Allows a parent process to replace the access token that is associated with a child process.

Default setting: Local Service and Network Service. Local System has the privilege inherently.

Restore files and directories


Allows a user to circumvent file and directory permissions when restoring backed-up files and directories and to set any valid security principal as the owner of an object.

Default setting: Administrators and Backup Operators.

See also “Back up files and directories” in this table.

Shut down the system


Allows a user to shut down the local computer.

Default setting: Administrators, Backup Operators, Power Users, and Users.

See also “Force shutdown from a remote system” in this table.

Synchronize directory service data


Allows a process to read all objects and properties in the directory, regardless of the protection on the objects and properties. This privilege is required to use Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) directory synchronization (Dirsync) services.

Default setting: Not assigned. The privilege is relevant only on domain controllers.

Take ownership of files or other objects


Allows a user to take ownership of any securable object in the system, including Active Directory objects, NTFS files and folders, printers, registry keys, services, processes, and threads.

Default setting: Administrators.





Command lines for administrative consoles in Windows Server 2008 are as follows:

Command Line Console Name
AdRmsAdmin.msc Active Directory Rights Management Services
Adsiedit.msc ADSI Edit
Azman.msc Authorization Manager
Certmgr.msc Certmgr (Certificates)
Certtmpl.msc Certificates Template Console
CluAdmin.msc Failover Cluster Management
Comexp.msc Component Services
Compmgmt.msc Computer Management
Devmgmt.msc Device Manager
Dfsmgmt.msc DFS Management
Dhcpmgmt.msc DHCP Manager
Diskmgmt.msc Disk Management
Dnsmgmt.msc DNS Manager
Domain.msc Active Directory Domains And Trusts
Dsa.msc Active Directory Users And Computers
Dssite.msc Active Directory Sites And Services
Eventvwr.msc Event Viewer
Fsmgmt.msc Shared Folders
Fsrm.msc File Server Resource Manager
Fxsadmin.msc Microsoft Fax Service Manager
Gpedit.msc Local Group Policy Editor
Lusrmgr.msc Local Users And Groups
Napclcfg.msc NAP Client Configuration
Nfsmgmt.msc Services For Network File System
Nps.msc Network Policy Server
Ocsp.msc Online Responder
Perfmon.msc Reliability And Performance Monitor
Pkiview.msc Enterprise PKI
Printmanagement.msc Print Management
Remoteprograms.msc TS RemoteApp Management
Rsop.msc Resultant Set of Policy
Secpol.msc Local Security Policy
ServerManager.msc Server Manager
StorageMgmt.msc Share And Storage Management
Services.msc Services
StorExpl.msc Storage Explorer
Tapimgmt.msc Telephony
Taskschd.msc Task Scheduler
Tmp.msc Trusted Platform Module (TPM) Management
Tsadmin.msc Terminal Services Management
Tsconfig.msc Terminal Services Configuration
Tsgateway.msc TS Gateway Manager
Tsmmc.msc Remote Desktops
Uddi.msc UDDI Services Console
Wbadmin.msc Windows Server Backup
Wdsmgmt.msc Windows Deployment Services
Winsmgmt.msc WINS Manager
WmiMgmt.msc WMI Control

Here are 3 weird facts about Windows that nobody can explain:

1. Nobody can create a folder named “Con”

Try to create anywhere on your hard disk a folder called “Con” (without the quotes). Go to a location on your hard disk, right click, choose “New” and then select “Folder” from the menu that appears. Name the folder “Con” (without quotes) and hit Enter. You will see that the folder won’t be named “Con”. It will be “New folder”

2. A text file made with Notepad, with the following content: “Bush hid the facts” (without quotes) won’t display the actual text.

Go to Start -> Programs -> Accessories -> Notepad. Write in Notepad the following text: “Bush hid the facts” (without quotes) then save the file and exit Notepad. Now open the text file you created. You won’t see the text you just wrote and saved.

3. Write in MS Word: “=rand(200,99)” (without the quotes) and witness the magic.

Open Microsoft Word and on the first line write: “=rand(200,99)” (without the quotes) and hit Enter key. See the magic.



How to start windows programs quickly with Run Command?

If you do not know the exact location of the program or document then click on

Start -> Run -> Command

The run option of Start menu is used to run a program or to open a document directly.

Run Commands

appwiz.cpl — Used to run Add/Remove wizard

Calc –Calculator

Cfgwiz32 –ISDN Configuration Wizard

Charmap –Character Map

Chkdisk –Repair damaged files

Cleanmgr –Cleans up hard drives

Clipbrd –Windows Clipboard viewer

Control –Displays Control Panel

Cmd –Opens a new Command Window

Control mouse –Used to control mouse properties

Dcomcnfg –DCOM user security

Debug –Assembly language programming tool

Defrag –Defragmentation tool

Drwatson –Records programs crash & snapshots

Dxdiag –DirectX Diagnostic Utility

Explorer –Windows Explorer

Fontview –Graphical font viewer

Fsmgmt.msc — Used to open shared folders

Firewall.cpl  — Used to configure windows firewall

Ftp -ftp.exe program

Hostname –Returns Computer’s name

Hdwwiz.cpl — Used to run Add Hardware wizard

Ipconfig –Displays IP configuration for all network adapters

Logoff — Used to logoff the computer

MMC –Microsoft Management Console

Msconfig –Configuration to edit startup files

Mstsc — Used to access remote desktop

Mrc — Malicious Software Removal Tool

Msinfo32 –Microsoft System Information Utility

Nbtstat –Displays stats and current connections using NetBIOS over TCP/IP

Netstat –Displays all active network connections

Nslookup–Returns your local DNS server

Osk —Used to access on screen keyboard

Perfmon.msc — Used to configure the performance of Monitor.

Ping –Sends data to a specified host/IP

Powercfg.cpl — Used to configure power option

Regedit –Registry Editor

Regwiz — Registration wizard

Sfc /scannow — System File Checker

Sndrec32 –Sound Recorder

Shutdown — Used to shutdown the windows

Spider — Used to open spider solitaire card game

Sfc / scannow — Used to run system file checker utility.

Sndvol32 –Volume control for soundcard

Sysedit — Edit system startup files

Taskmgr –Task manager

Telephon.cpl — Used to configure modem options.

Telnet –Telnet program

Tracert –Traces and displays all paths required to reach an internet host

Winchat — Used to chat with Microsoft

Wmplayer — Used to run Windows Media player

Wab — Used to open Windows address Book.

WinWord — Used to open Microsoft word

Winipcfg –Displays IP configuration

Winver — Used to check Windows Version

Wupdmgr –Takes you to Microsoft Windows Update

Write — Used to open WordPad

Top 20 Tips To Keep Your System Faster

Follow these tips and you will definitely have a much faster and more reliable PC! Most of the below tips works for windows

1. Wallpapers: They slow your whole system down, so if you’re willing to compromise, have a basic plain one instead!

2. Drivers: Update your hardware drivers as frequently as possible.  New drivers tend to increase system speed especially in the case of graphics cards, their drivers are updated by the manufacturer very frequently!

3. Minimizing: If you want to use several programs at the same time then minimize those you are not using.  This helps reduce the overload on RAM.
4. Boot Faster: The ’starting Windows 95/98′ message on startup can delay your booting for a couple of seconds.  To get rid of this message go to c:\ and find the file Msdos.sys.  Remove the Read-Only option.  Next, open it in Notepad or any other text editor.  Finally, go to the text ‘Options’ within the file and make the following changes: Add BootDelay=0.  To make your booting even faster, set add Logo=0 to remove the Windows logo at startup.

5. Restart only Windows: When restarting your PC, hold down Shift to only restart Windows rather than the whole system which will only take a fraction of the time.

6. Turn Off Animations: Go to Display Settings from the Control Panel and switch to the Effects Tab. Now turn off Show Windows Content While Dragging and Smooth Edges on Screen Fonts.  This tip is also helpful with Windows XP because of the various fade/scroll effects.

7. Faster Start-Menu Access: Go to the Start menu and select Run.  Now type Regedit and hit Enter.  The Registry Editor will appear on the screen.  Now, open the folder HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Control Panel\Desktop.  You should see a MenuShowDelay value.  If you don’t then do the following: right click on a blank space in the right pane and select New\String.  Change the name in the new value to MenuShowDelay.  Now that we have the MenuShowDelay value, double click on it and enter 0 in the value data field.  This sets the start menu delay to 0 milliseconds.

8. Resolutions:
If you are willing to do anything for faster performance from your PC, then try lowering your display resolution.  The lower it is, the faster your PC.

9. Turn off Active Desktop:
Go to your Display Properties and switch to the Web tab.  Uncheck View My Active Desktop As a Web Page.  Since the Active Desktop option under Windows 98 uses a lot of system resources, this option can have a dramatic effect on the speed of the whole system.

10. Defragment Often:
Windows 98’s Defrag tool uses Application Acceleration from Intel which means that when you defragment your drive, data is physically arranged on the drive so that applications will load faster.

11. Take your PC to Bed: Using the Advanced Power Management feature under Windows 98 gives you the option to use the sleep command.  That way, you can send your PC to sleep instead of shutting it down and then restarting it.  It’s as simple as pressing a button and then pressing the same button to wake it up.  You can tell Windows after how many minutes/hours of inactivity to automatically sleep the machine in the Advanced Power Management section of the Control Panel.

12. Faster Internet Access
: If you use the internet for reference and the sites you visit are rarely  updated then try the following.  In IE (the same can be done in Netscape) go to Tools, Internet Options.  Next, click on Settings… in the Temporary Internet Files  section.  Finally, select Never for the first option and double the amount of storage space to use, click OK!

13. Benchmarking:
Benchmarking can be very useful when run frequently.  It can tell you how your PC’s components are performing and then compare them to other machines like yours.  For example, when you overclock your PC, you want to know how much more speed you have and whether it is stable.  All this and more can be discovered using benchmarking.  An excellent piece of software for doing this job is SiSoft Sandra which can be found in the Downloads File Archive!

14. Refresh the Taskbar without restarting:
If you in some way change the taskbar, either in Regedit or elsewhere, you can refresh the task bar without restarting.  Hold down Ctrl Alt Del, and double click on Explorer.  Say Yes to close Explorer, but no to closing Windows.  This will refresh the Taskbar and system tray.

15. Quick CD Eject: Instead of pushing the button on your drive, right-click your CD drive letter in My Computer and click on Eject.  This will also remove any icons that have become associated with the CD drive.

16. Start Up Programs:
Windows can be slowed down when programs run on start up.  To eliminate this, check your Start up folder.  You can access it from the start menu: Start, Programs, Start Up.  Another way to eliminate programs from loading even before Windows actually starts is by doing the following: Click on Start, then Run.  Type msconfig.  It will take quite a long time for this program to load, but when you finally see it on your screen, explore the different tabs.  They all have to do with how quickly your PC boots, so select what you want, and uncheck what you don’t want!

17. Fonts: When Windows starts, it loads every single font in the Fonts folder.  Therefore, the more fonts you have, the slower the booting process.  To get rid of unwanted fonts, simply go to the Fonts folder under c:\windows and remove whatever you don’t want.  Fonts that have a red letter ‘A’ as their icon are system fonts, so don’t delete them.

18. Stretching Wallpapers:
Don’t “stretch” your wallpaper in Windows 98 since it actually slows Windows down when you drag icons around on the desktop.

19. RAM Matters: If you have less than 32MB then you should seriously think of upgrading it to at least 64MB.  Windows runs much more smoothly with 64MB or higher and tends to use less hard disk space for virtual memory.

20. Partitioning:
A very nice little thing you can do to boost system performance.  By partitioning your hard drive, splitting one physical drive into several logical ones, you can gain several advantages.  1. If you get a virus or you accidentally format a drive, not all will be lost.  2. By placing the swap file (Win386.swp) on a separate drive, The swap file will be less fragmented and thus, faster. 3. Place Windows on a separate drive and whenever you need to reinstall it, you rest assured that your data is safe on a separate drive.  Partitioning can be done using a few programs such as FDisk which comes with DOS.  However, FDisk formats everything on the hard disk before partitioning. Alternatively, you can use Partition Magic from Power Quest to partition your hard disk without losing your data.

Blu-ray, also known as Blu-ray Disc (BD), is the name of a next-generation optical disc format jointly developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association (BDA), a group of the world’s leading consumer electronics, personal computer and media manufacturers (including Apple, Dell, Hitachi, HP, JVC, LG, Mitsubishi, Panasonic, Pioneer, Philips, Samsung, Sharp, Sony, TDK and Thomson). The format was developed to enable recording, rewriting and playback of high-definition video (HD), as well as storing large amounts of data. The format offers more than five times the storage capacity of traditional DVDs and can hold up to 25GB on a single-layer disc and 50GB on a dual-layer disc. This extra capacity combined with the use of advanced video and audio codecs will offer consumers an unprecedented HD experience.

While current optical disc technologies such as DVD, DVD±R, DVD±RW, and DVD-RAM rely on a red laser to read and write data, the new format uses a blue-violet laser instead, hence the name Blu-ray. Despite the different type of lasers used, Blu-ray products can easily be made backwards compatible with CDs and DVDs through the use of a BD/DVD/CD compatible optical pickup unit. The benefit of using a blue-violet laser (405nm) is that it has a shorter wavelength than a red laser (650nm), which makes it possible to focus the laser spot with even greater precision. This allows data to be packed more tightly and stored in less space, so it’s possible to fit more data on the disc even though it’s the same size as a CD/DVD. This together with the change of numerical aperture to 0.85 is what enables Blu-ray Discs to hold 25GB/50GB.

Blu-ray is currently supported by more than 170 of the world’s leading consumer electronics, personal computer, recording media, video game and music companies. The format also has broad support from the major movie studios as a successor to today’s DVD format. Seven of the eight major movie studios have already announced titles for Blu-ray, including Warner, Paramount, Fox, Disney, Sony, MGM and Lionsgate. The initial line-up is expected to consist of over 100 titles and include recent hits as well as classics such as Batman Begins, Desperado, Fantastic Four, Fifth Element, Hero, Ice Age, Kill Bill, Lethal Weapon, Mission Impossible, Ocean’s Twelve, Pirates of the Caribbean, Reservoir Dogs, Robocop, and The Matrix. Many studios have also announced that they will begin releasing new feature films on Blu-ray Disc day-and-date with DVD, as well as a continuous slate of catalog titles every month.

What is Technical Writing?

Technical Writing is writing on a specific subject for a specific purpose to a specific audience. Technical Writers can be considered as a bridge between people who know technology and people who use it. They understand the intricacies and complications of technology and put it in simple words that help the user understand and use the technology.

What do Technical Writers do?

A technical writer’s job will be to gather information from various sources, comprehend the technology, and put it in simple and easy-to-understand language for the end user.

The following are some of the documents a technical writer creates:

  1. User manuals
  2. Online help files
  3. Reports
  4. Brochures
  5. Process documents
  6. Business proposals
  7. Resumes
  8. Memorandum
  9. Minutes
  10. Feature modules
  11. Release notes
  12. Policies and procedures

Who can be successful in Technical Writing?

Technical Writing is considered as both Science and Art. It is a science because there is a methodical way of doing technical writing. It is an art because it involves writing. People with inclination and passion for writing can score as good technical writers. The following are the attributes expected of a technical writer:

  • Good written communication skills
  • Flair for writing (Simple but good English is preferred)
  • Inclination to learn new technologies
  • Working knowledge of computers

Is Technical Writing a new field?

Many people think Technical Writing to be a new field. It is not so. Technical Writing has been existent for centuries. It is just that it is getting a good shape and the due recognition now. Internationally it is referred to as Technical Communication and is an integral part of a Corporate structure. A Document Development Cycle (DDLC) or a Software Development Cycle (SDLC) is not complete without a Technical Writer.

Cloud Computing is the emerging Technology both in the Business as well as in the IT……

Sun Microsystems released its First Edition of White Paper regarding Cloud Computing Architecture on June 2009.

To Know more about the Sun’s Perspectives on Cloud Computing, follow the link given below…………

Cloud Computing


All Date is always ripe to do Good

July 2018
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